Vol. 4, 2019

Original research papers

Radiation Protection


Danko Živković, Nevenka M. Antović

Pages: 83–89

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.17

There is an interest in evaluating and predicting risks due to existing radiation exposure situations, such as radon inhalation or exposure to external terrestrial radiation, both indoors and outdoors – as the greatest contributors to annual effective dose coming from natural radiation sources. That is particularly related to radon exposure and an evaluation of its role in initiating lung cancer, although risk projections have serious limitations being affected by the other important agents contributing to the cancer risk. Cancer risk due to radon inhalation and terrestrial gamma radiation in Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro, is considered here together with available epidemiological data, showing that among different types of cancer diagnosed in Montenegro, lung cancer is among the most common ones. The previous analysis indicated that the lung cancer incidence rate increases from year to year, 6% annually in the period from 1978 to 2005, with an average standardized incidence rate of 20.8 per hundred thousand. The incidence rate of lung cancer in Podgorica in 2009 evaluated in the present study was found to be around 34.9. Diagnosed cancer types were non-small cell lung cancer in 37%, small cell lung cancer 22%, adenocarcinoma 17%, and mixed – adeno- and non-small cell 24%. Excess lifetime cancer risk due to terrestrial gamma radiation outdoors in the urban area of Podgorica (14 locations) is estimated to be in the range (10-3) from 0.17 to 0.69, with an average of 0.33, while the risk of lung cancer due to lifetime radon inhalation (153 homes in the region of the Podgorica municipality) – from 0.04 to 8.8%, with an average of 0.8% and median of 0.4%.
  1. Ionizing radiation, part 1: X- and gamma (γ)-radiation, and neutrons, vol. 75, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, IARC, Lyon, France, 2000.
    Retrieved from: https://monographs.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/mono75.pdf
    Retrieved on: Aug. 02, 2018
  2. Radiation – A review of human carcinogens, vol. 100 D, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, IARC, Lyon, France, 2012.
    Retrieved from: https://monographs.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/mono100D.pdf
    Retrieved on: Aug. 02, 2018
  3. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, vol. 21, ICRP Publication no. 60, ICRP, Ottawa, Canada, 1991.
    Retrieved from: http://www.icrp.org/publication.asp?id=ICRP%20Publication%2060
    Retrieved on: Aug. 02, 2018
  4. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, vol. 37, ICRP Publication no. 103, ICRP, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.
    Retrieved from: http://www.icrp.org/publication.asp?id=ICRP%20Publication%20103
    Retrieved on: Aug. 02, 2018
  5. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Annex B, Rep. A/55/46, UNSCEAR, New York (NY), USA, 2000.
    Retrieved from: https://www.unscear.org/docs/publications/2000/UNSCEAR_2000_Annex-B.pdf
    Retrieved on: Nov. 14, 2009
  6. Effects of ionizing radiation, Annex E, Rep. A/61/46 + Corr, UNSCEAR, New York (NY), USA, 2009.
    Retrieved from: https://www.unscear.org/docs/publications/2006/UNSCEAR_2006_Annex-E-CORR.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jul. 19, 2013
  7. D. Živković, “Efekat izgubljenog vremena na preživljavanje bolesnika sa karcinomom pluća,” Doktorska disertacija, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Beograd, Srbija, 2009. (D. Živković, “Effect of delays on surviving patients with lung carcinoma,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade, Serbia, 2009.)
    Retrieved from: https://plus.cg.cobiss.net/opac7/bib/35934479
    Retrieved on: Jul. 19, 2013
  8. Ministarstvo zdravlja Crne Gore. (Jul 2011). Nacionalni program za kontrolu raka. (Ministry of Health of Montenegro. (Jul. 2011). National programme for cancer control.)
    Retrieved from: http://www.mzdravlja.gov.me/ResourceManager/FileDownload.aspx?rid=217336&rType=2&file=NACIONALNI%20 PROGRAM%20ZA%20KONTROLU%20RAKA%20SA%20PLANOM%20AKTIVNOSTI%202011-2015.pdf
    Retrieved on: Aug. 19, 2019
  9. Statistical Yearbook of Montenegro 2018, Statistical Office of Montenegro – MONSTAT, Podgorica, Montenegro, 2018.
    Retrieved from: hhttp://monstat.org/userfiles/file/publikacije/godisnjak%202018/GODISNJAK%202018%20PRELOM.pdf
    Retrieved on: Aug. 26, 2019
  10. P. Vukotic et al., “Indoor radon concentrations in the capital of Montenegro,” Bull. The Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, no. 17, pp. 85 – 95, 2007.
  11. P. Vukotic et al., “Radon survey in Montenegro – A base to set national radon reference and “urgent action” level,” J. Environ. Radioact., vol. 196, pp. 232 – 239, Jan. 2019.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.02.009
    PMid: 29501265
  12. P. Vukotic et al., “Main findings from radon indoor survey in Montenegro,” Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 2019.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncz022
    PMid: 30839085
  13. P. Vukotić i dr., “Istraživanje radona u stanovima u Crnoj Gori,” u Zborniku 29. Simp. Društva za zaštitu od zračenja Srbije i Crne Gore, Srebrno jezero, Srbija, 2017, str. 161 – 166. (P. Vukotić et al., “Radon indoor survey in Montenegro,” in Proc. 29th Symp. Radiat. Prot. Soc. Ser. Monten., Srebrno jezero, Serbia, 2017, pp. 161 – 166.)
    Retrieved from: https://mail.ipb.ac.rs/~centar3/radovi171020/2017_CN03-04_Zbornik_XXIX_Simpozijum_DZZ_SCG_2017.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 15, 2019
  14. P. Vukotić i dr., “Procjena procenta stanova u Crnoj Gori sa koncentracijama radona iznad datog nivoa,” u Zborniku 11. Simp. Hrvatskog društva za zaštitu od zračenja, Osijek, Hrvatska, 2017, str. 356 – 361. (P. Vukotic et al., “Estimation of a percentage of dwellings in Montenegro with radon concentrations above a given level,” in Proc. 11th Symp. Croat. Radiat. Prot. Assoc., Osijek, Croatia, 2017, pp. 356 – 361.)
    Retrieved from: https://www.hdzz.hr/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/11HDZZ_zbornik.pdf
    Retrieved on: Feb. 4, 2019
  15. I. Antović, N. Svrkota, D. Živković, N. M. Antović, “A cancer risk due to natural radiation on the Coast of Montenegro,”in Proc. 14th Int. Cong. Int. Rad. Prot. Assoc. (IRPA), Cape Town, South Africa, 2016, pp. 1470 – 1477.
  16. N. M. Аntović et al., “Radioactivity impact assessment of Nikšić region in Montenegro,” J. Rаdioаnаl. Nucl. Chem., vol. 302, no. 2, pp. 831 – 836, Nov. 2014.
    DOI: 10.1007/s10967-014-3254-3
  17. I. Antović, N. M. Antović, “Nasljedni efekti jonizujućeg zračenja – procjene rizika,” u Zborniku 29. Simp. Društva za zaštitu od zračenja Srbije i Crne Gore, Srebrno jezero, Srbija, 2017, str. 343 – 350. (I. Antović, N. M. Antović, “Hereditary effects of ionizing radiation – risk estimations,” in Proc. 29th Symp. Radiat. Prot. Soc. Ser. Monten., Srebrno jezero, Serbia, 2017, pp. 343 – 350.)
    Retrieved from: http://fulir.irb.hr/3649/2/Zbornik%20XXIX%20Simpozijum%20DZZ%20SCG%20Srebrno%20jezero.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 21, 2019
  18. International Commission on Radiological Protection Statement on Radon, ICRP Ref: 00/902/09, ICRP, Ottawa, Canada, 2009.
    Retrieved from: http://www.icrp.org/docs/ICRP_Statement_on_Radon(November_2009).pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 21, 2019
  19. D. J. Pawel, J. S. Puskin, EPA assessment of risk from radon in homes, Rep. EPA 402-R03-003, EPA, Washington DC, USA, 2003.
    Retrieved from: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-05/documents/402-r-03-003.pdf
    Retrieved on: Feb. 3, 2019
  20. N. M. Antovic, N. Svrkota, I. Antovic, “Radiological impacts of natural radioactivity from soil in Montenegro,” Radiat. Prot. Dosim., vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 310 – 317, Feb. 2012.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncr087
    PMid: 21498861
  21. I. Softić, “Doze terestrijalnog gama zračenja u Podgorici,” Magistarski rad, Univerzitet Crne Gore, Prirodno-matematički fakultet, Podgorica, Crna Gora, 2017. (I. Softić, “Doses of terrestrial gamma radiation in Podgorica,” M.Sc. thesis, University of Montenegro, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Podgorica, Montenegro, 2017.)
    Retrieved from: https://www.ucg.ac.me/skladiste/blog_101/objava_4601/fajlovi/MSc%20rad%20_%20Ilda%20Softi%c4%87.pdf
    Retrieved on: May 15, 2019
  22. Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) Procedures Manual, Rep. HASL-300, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, New York (NY), USA, 1997.
    Retrieved from: https://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=487142
    Retrieved on: Apr. 2, 2019
  23. GammaVision-32 Software User’s Manual, 6th ed., AMETEK Inc. (ORTEC), Oak Ridge (TN), USA, 2003.
    Retrieved from: https://www.ortec-online.com/-/media/ametekortec/manuals/a66-mnl.pdf
    Retrieved on: Feb. 15, 2019
  24. M. A. Baloch et al., “A study on natural radioactivity in Khewra Salt Mines, Pakistan,” J. Radiat. Res., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 411 – 421, May 2012.
    DOI: 10.1269/jrr.11162
    PMid: 22739011
  25. Z. Gledovic, O. Bojovic, T. Pekmezovic, “The pattern of lung cancer mortality in Montenegro,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev.,vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 373 – 376, Oct. 2003.
    DOI: 10.1097/00008469-200310000-00005
    PMid: 14512801
  26. L. A. Torre et al., “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA: Cancer J. Clin., vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 87 – 108, Mar. 2015.
    DOI: 10.3322/caac.21262
    PMid: 25651787
  27. L. A. Torre, R. L. Siegel, E. M. Ward, A. Jemal, “Global cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends – an update,”Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 16 – 27, Jan. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0578
    PMid: 26667886
  28. M. Nedović-Vuković, D. Laušević, A. Ljajević, M. Golubović, G. Trajković, “Lung cancer mortality in Montenegro, 1990 to 2015,” Croat. Med. J., vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 26 – 32, Feb. 2019.
    DOI: 10.3325/cmj.2019.60.26
    PMid: 30825275
    PMCid: PMC6406062
  29. Health Effects of Exposure to Radon (BEIR VI), Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Washington DC, USA, 1999.
    Retrieved from: https://www.nap.edu/read/5499/chapter/1
    Retrieved on: Jan. 15, 2019