Vol. 7, 2022



Erjon Spahiu, Irma Bërdufi, Manjola Shyti

Pages: 7–11

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.03

We are using everyday spices in food as pigment taste, flavor of foods or in human diet and some of them have great benefits for our health and body. In Albania the type of spices in food has been increased in recent years and these vary from country to country, depending on the type of soil and how they are grown. Thus, the aim of this current study attempts to determine the level of radioactivity in different types of spices, which are consumed by people living in the city of Tirana in Albania, where is concentrated the largest number of the population and to estimate their effective dose to the human body. Samples of spices are collected randomly in some different markets in Tirana city, which may be produced in Albania or imported. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were measured in twenty types of spices. A high-resolution HPGe detector was employed to perform the measurements. The obtained results indicate that 40K, 226Ra and 232Th was detected in all selected samples for study, whereas the presence of artificial radionuclide of 137Cs was found only in two spices samples. 40K activity concentration varies from 173.72 ± 9.34 Bq kg-1 to 849.47 ± 39.36 Bq kg-1. The range of activity concentration of 226Ra varies from 5.15 ± 0.52 Bq kg-1 to 21.01 ± 1.80 Bq kg-1. The activity concentration of 232Th varies from 2.04 ± 0.31 Bq kg-1 to 21.90 ± 1.78 Bq kg-1. The estimated Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) due to ingestion of these spices varies from 5.61 ± 0.29 μSv y-1 to 10.91 ± 0.56 μSv y-1. All these values are far below than the world average value dose for individual of 290 μSv y-1 for all foods reported by UNSCEAR 2000. This indicates that no risk is expected by the intake of spices samples in food. The obtained data provide us the baseline levels of natural radioactivity and background information for future research on foodstuff for radiological protection of the human.
  1. D. Gottardi, D. Bukvicki, S. Prasad, A. K. Tyagi, “Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety,” Front. Microbiol., vol. 7, 1394, Sep. 2016.
    DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01394
    PMid: 27708620
    PMCid: PMC5030248
  2. M. M. Tajkarimi, S. A. Ibrahim, D. O. Cliver, “Antimicrobial Herb and Spice Compounds in Food,” Food Control, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1199 – 1218, Sep. 2010.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.02.003
  3. Cardamom: The Genus Elettaria, P. N. Ravindran, K. J. Madhusoodanan, Eds., 1st ed., New York (NY), USA: Taylor and Francis, 2002.
    DOI: 10.1201/9780203216637
  4. S. Prasad, S. C. Gupta, B. B. Aggarwal, “Micronutrients and cancer: add spice to your life,” in Nutrition, Diet and Cancer, S. Shankar, R. K. Srivastava, Eds., 1st ed., Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2012, ch. 2, pp. 23 – 48.
    DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2923-0_2
  5. M. Zehringer, "Radioactivity in Food: Experiences of the Food Control Authority of Basel-City since the Chernobyl Accident", in Radiation Effects in Materials, W. A. Monteiro, Eds., London, United Kingdom: IntechOpen, 2016, ch. 6, pp. 131 – 160.
    Retrieved form: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/50183
    Retrieved on: Dec. 15, 2021
    DOI: 10.5772/62460
  6. T. T. Van et al., “Estimation of Radionuclide Concentrations and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose due to Ingestion for the Population in the Red River Delta, Vietnam,” Environ. Manage., vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 444 – 454, Apr. 2019.
    DOI: 10.1007/s00267-018-1007-8
    PMid: 29453646
    PMCid: PMC6470118
  7. R. Tykva, J. Sabol, Low Level Environmental Radioactivity: Sources and Evaluation, Lancaster (PA), USA: Technomic Publishing, 1995.
  8. M. Shyti, “Calibration and performance of HPGe detector for environmental radioactivity measurements using LabSOCS,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 2075, no. 1, 130012, Feb. 2019.
    DOI: 10.1063/1.5091297
  9. A. Mauring, S. Patterson, B. Seslak, S. Tarjan, A. Trinkl, IAEA-TEL-2020-03 World Wide Open Proficiency Test Exercise, Pie-charts, S-Shapes and Reported Results with Scores , Rep. IAEA-TEL-2020-03, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2021.
    Retrieved form: https://nucleus.iaea.org/sites/ReferenceMaterials/Pages/Interlaboratory-Studies.aspx
    Retrieved on: Nov. 10, 2021
  10. M. M. Bé, C. Dulieu, V. Chisté, Bibliotheque des emissions alpha, X et gamma classees par ordre d'energie croissante , Rapport CEA-R-6201, Commissariat à l'énergie atomique, Paris, France, 2008.
    (M. M. Bé, C. Dulieu, V. Chisté, Library for alpha, X and gamma emissions sorted by increasing energy , Rep. CEA-R-6201, French Atomic Energy Commission, Paris, France, 2008.)
    Retrieved from: http://www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/Nucleide-LARA_2008.pdf
    Retrieved on: Nov. 10, 2021
  11. S. Turhan, A. Varinlioglu, “Radioactivity measurement of primordial radionuclides in and dose evaluation from marble and glazed tiles used as covering building materials in Turkey,” Radiat. Prot. Dosim., vol. 151, no. 3, pp. 546 – 555, Sep. 2012.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncs041
    PMid: 22492819
  12. L. E. De Geer, “Currie detection limits in gamma–ray spectroscopy,” Appl. Radiat. Isot., vol. 61, no. 2 – 3, pp. 151 – 160, Sep. 2004.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.03.037
    PMid: 15177337
  13. Derivation of Activity Concentration Values for Exclusion, Exemption and Clearance , Safety Reports Series no. 44, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2005.
    Retrieved from: https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1213_web.pdf
    Retrieved on: Nov. 10, 2021
  14. E. Spahiu, M. Shyti, I. Bërdufi, “Estimation of average annual committed effective dose due to ingestion for some medicinal and herbal plants used in Albania,” IJEES, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 441 – 446, Jul. 2020.
    DOI: 10.31407/ijees10.302
  15. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation , vol. 1, UNSCEAR Report (A/55/46), UNSCEAR, New York (NY), USA, 2000.
    Retrieved from: https://www.unscear.org/docs/publications/2000/UNSCEAR_2000_Report_Vol.I.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 20, 2021
  16. Age - Dependent Doses to Member of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides: Part 3, Ingestion Dose Coefficients, vol. 25, ICRP Publication no. 69, ICRP, Ottawa, Canada, 1995.
    Retrieved form: https://www.icrp.org/publication.asp?id=ICRP%20Publication%2069
    Retrieved on: Jan. 20, 2021